The Aggarwal Chamber of Vs. M/S Ganpat
Rai Hira Lal  INSC 100 (11 November 1957)
SINHA, BHUVNESHWAR P.
CITATION: 1958 AIR 269 1958 SCR 938
Income-tax--Assessment of agent in respect of
profits held for non-resident Principal--Agent's right to claim deduction for
payment made-Ultimate liability of principal to income- tax on basis of his
world income, if a relevant consideration--Indian it Income-tax Act, (XI Of
1922), ss. 40(2), 42(1).
The appellant company and the respondent firm
were carrying on business in the erstwhile patiala State, and were non-
residents in British India. The appellant, acting as commission agent for the
respondent, entered into several forward transactions with a Hapur firm of
The profits accruing on these transactions
amounted to Rs. 29,275-2-6 on which the Hapur firm paid a sum Of Rs. 9,314-
13-4 as income. tax. In 1943 the appellant was ordered to be wound up and the
respondent was placed on the list of contributories. The Official Liquidator
applied to the Liquidation judge for a payment order for a sum which included
the amount of income-tax paid by the Hapur firm for and on behalf of the
respondent. The main contention raised on behalf of the respondent was that it
had no taxable income in the year in dispute and was not liable to pay any
income-tax and that, consequently, it was not liable for the income-tax paid by
the Hapur firm.
Held, that the Liquidator was entitled to
claim from the respondent the amount of income-tax paid by the Hapur firm
irrespective of the consideration whether its world income was taxable or not.
Under the law the Hapur firm was an agent of the respondent for the business of
the agency which was entrusted to it, and was as such liable under ss- 40(2)
and 42(1) Income-tax Act, as an assessee for income-tax on the profits made on
the respondent's transactions at Hapur and was entitled to retain the estimated
amount of income- tax payable on the amount of the respondent's profits. As the
Hapur firm had rightly paid the tax on the profits, the respondent could not be
allowed to challenge the liability on the ground that his total world income
was not taxable and he was entitled to his profits without deductions. That was
a question which must be agitated by the non-resident assessee at the time of
his assessment. As between the parties the tax paid by the agent had to be
taken into account irrespective of the result of the assessment on the
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION: Civil Appeal
No. 79 of 1954.
938 Appeal from the judgment and order dated
March 10, 1953, of the former Pepsu High Court in Letters Patent Appeal No. 493
of Samvat 2005 arising out of the judgment and order dated January 18, 1949, of
the said High Court in E. As. Nos. 78- 96 of Samvat 2001.
Naunit Lal, for the appellants.
Mohan Behari Lal, for the respondents.
1957. November 11. The following Judgment of
the Court was delivered by KAPUR J.-This is an appeal brought pursuant to a
certificate under Art. 133(1)(c) of the Constitution from the judgment and
order of the Division Bench of the erstwhile Pepsu High Court pronounced on
March 10, 1953, modifying in appeal the order of the Liquidation Judge.
The facts are fully recited in the judgments
of the courts below and comparatively a brief recital will be sufficient for
the purpose of this judgment. The appellant company was incorporated in 1934
under the Companies Act of the erstwhile Patiala State. It carried on the
business of commission agency for dealing in forward transactions in various
kinds of grain and other commodities. The respondent- firm Ganpat Rai Hira Lal
of Narnaul-besides being a shareholder of the appellant company had dealings
with it and entered into several forward transactions of sale and purchase of
grain and other commodities. The appellant, acting as a commission agent of the
respondent and its other constituents entered into several transactions of
forward delivery at Hapur with Firm Pyarelal Musaddi Lai, who were carrying on
commission agency business at Hapur (and will hereinafter be termed the Hapur
firm). The total profits of the transactions entered into by the appellant with
the Hapur firm was Rs. 48,250 on which the Hapur firm paid Rs. 14,730-8 as
income-tax. The profits accruing on the transactions entered into on behalf of
the respondent amounted to Rs. 29,275-2-6 on which the proportionate income-tax
claimed to have been paid was 939 Rs. 9,314-13-4. On May 20, 1943, the
appellant was ordered to be wound up and Udmi Ram Aggarwal, a pleader of the
old Patiala High Court was appointed its liquidator. The list of contributories
was settled on October 21, 1943, and the respondent was placed on that list.
Though this matter was challenged in the appeal before the High Court it is no
longer in controversy between the parties.
The Official Liquidator on March 18, 1944,
applied under s. 186 of the Patiala Companies Act, for a payment order for Rs.
12,204-12-3 against the respondent and in support of his claim he filed, with this
application, copies of the respondent's account in the books of the appellant
showing how the amount claimed was due from the respondent. This amount
included the sum of Rs. 9,476-13-0, on account of income-tax paid by the Hapur
firm for and on behalf of the respondent on the profits of the forward
transactions at Hapur and the commission of the Hapur firm. The respondent
raised several objections and pleaded inter alia that the Hapur firm with whom
the appellant had entered into forward transactions had no right to demand any
income-tax from the appellant as no profit had accrued to the appellant which
was acting as a commission agent and " was only entitled to the commission
". It was also pleaded that as on the total number of transactions entered
into between the respondent and the appellant there was a loss, the respondent
was not liable to pay any income-tax and that the respondent had no taxable
income in the year under dispute or in any other year. On May 23, 1944, the
respondent filed an application in which it was submitted that the Hapur firm,
who were agents of the appellant at Hapur, had retained Rs. 14,730-8- 0, "
which was in trust with them under s. 42 of the Income Tax Act " and
prayed that the Official Liquidator be directed to apply to the Income Tax
authorities for a refund of the amount retained and paid by the Hapur firm, as
no tax was really due on the transactions entered into by the appellant with
the Hapur firm and none was payable by the respondent. 940 After evidence was
led by both parties the payment order was made by the learned Liquidation Judge
on January 18, 1949, for a sum of Rs. 8,191-0-9 which included a sum of Rs. 6,867-9-6
the proportionate amount of income-tax due on the profits accruing on the
respondent's transactions. Against this order the respondent took an appeal to
the Division Bench and canvassed two points: (1) that the respondent could not
be settled on the list of contributories and (2) that it was not liable for the
amount retained for payment of income-tax from out of profits on the
transactions entered into on its behalf by the appellant with the Hapur firm
and subsequently paid by the latter. The court negatived the former contention
and held that the respondent had rightly been settled on the list of contributories
and upheld the latter contention and held, following a judgment of the Judicial
Committee of the Ijlas-khas of Patiala in Panna Lal Mohar Singh v. Aggarwal
Chamber (1), that the Official Liquidator of the appellant was riot entitled to
claim the amount of income-tax paid by the Hapur firm. The Judicial Committee
ljlas-khas had held :
" Before the liability of the
contributory can be fixed it must be shown that his income was such on which
income was assessable......... It is not denied that the contributory was
carrying on other transactions in India a,-, it stood before partition through
other person. It was therefore his entire income that was to be taken into
consideration to assess his liability to income-tax." The appellant then
applied for a certificate to appeal under Art. 133(1)(c) which was granted in
the following terms:
" The first question is whether a
decision given by one Judge of the Judicial Committee can be regarded in law as
a decision of the Committee. The second is whether the principle laid down by
the learned Judge of the Judicial Committee that the Aggarwal Chamber of
Commerce was not entitled to recover from its clients the proportionate share
of the income-tax paid by it unless it was shown that the total amount (1) C. A.
60 Of 2005 S. 941 of income of the clients was assessable to income-tax, was
Accordingly we allow the petition and grant
the certificate." The first point has not been canvassed before us and in
the view that we have taken it would be unnecessary to go into that matter. The
sole point for decision is whether the respondent is liable for income-tax,
which has been paid by the Hapur firm on the transactions, which were entered
into by the appellant with the Hapur firm for and on behalf of the respondent?
There is no finding by the High Court that the respondent had entered into any
forward transactions in British India or at Hapur with any firm other than the
Hapur firm and this matter was not agitated before us, nor is there any finding
as to the total world income of the respondent and there is no material on the
record from which it could be determined.
The appellant is a non-resident company and
the respondent is a non-resident, residing at Narnaul in what was the Indian
State of Patiala. The appellant entered into forward transactions on behalf of
the respondent at Hapur in which there was a considerable amount of profit. The
High Court has found that the Hapur firm paid Rs. 6,867-9-0 on account of
income-tax which was payable on the profits made on the transactions entered
into with the Hapur firm for and on behalf of the respondent. The respondent
challenged its liability to pay income-tax on the ground that it was liable:
" only on his total earnings during the
year under assessment and since, as is clear even from the books of the
respondent, he had suffered heavy losses in his business at Narnaul, his total
income was not assessable to any income- tax." The learned Liquidation
Judge held the respondent liable for the amount of the income-tax by applying
s. 69 of the Contract Act. The Division Bench on appeal disallowed this item on
the ground that it had not been shown that the " total earnings" of
the respondent were taxable under the Act. Neither of the 942 courts below have
discussed the relevant provisions of the Act, not even s. 42 which was
mentioned by the respondent in his application of May 23, 1944, nor have they
given a finding as to the jural relationship of the Hapur firm with the
respondent. The agency of the Hapur firm was not seriously disputed before us
nor repudiated. The case seems to have proceeded on the basis of this agency in
the courts below. The Hapur firm was employed by the appellant for forward
transaction business of the respondent who has accepted the transactions
entered into as also the amount of the profit accruing on those transactions
and is only disputing the amount of income-tax deducted, retained and paid on
those profits. Under the law the Hapur firm would be an agent of the respondent
for that part of the business of the agency as was entrusted to it and "
privity of contract arises between the principal and the substitute ".
Section 194 of the Contract Act; De Bussche
v. Alt (1).
It is now necessary to refer to the relevant
provisions of the Income-tax Act in force in the assessment year 1942-43
(hereinafter termed the Act). It is not clear as to what was the signification
of the words " total earnings " used by the High Court because it is
not used in the Income Tax Act which uses two expressions ; " total income
" and " total world income " in sub-s. 15 of s. 2 of the Act.
The definition of " total income " comprises two things (i) the total
amount of income, profits and gains referred to in s.
4(1) and (ii) computation in the manner laid
down in the Income Tax Act. " Total world income " includes all
income, profits and gains wherever accruing or arising except income to which
under the provisions of s. 4(3) the Act does not apply.
Thus in the case of the respondent who is a
" nonresident" "total income" would comprise income,
profits and gains received or accrued in British India or deemed to be received
or to accrue in British India. Section 17 of the Act which was relied upon by
the respondent's counsel occurs in Chapter III dealing with (1)(1878) 8 Ch, D.
286, 311, 943 Taxable income ". It provides for the determination of tax
payable in certain special cases of which the, case of a non-resident is one.
" Where a person is not resident in
British India and is a British subject as defined in section 27 of the British
Nationality and Status of Aliens Act, 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. V. Ch. 17) or a
subject of a State in India or Burma, or a native of a Tribal Area, the tax,
including super-tax, payable by him or on his behalf on his total income shall
be an amount bearing to the total amount of the tax including super-tax which
would have been payable on his total world income had it been his total income
the same proportion as his total income bears to his total world
income.............. Section 17 does not deal with or affect the rights and
liabilities of persons required under the Act to make deductions of income-tax
from sums payable to non- residents or the consequences of failure to make such
The very next chapter (Chapter IV) deals with
deductions which the Act requires to be made in regard to different heads of
income. Section 18 provides for deduction at the source. Sub-s. 3 A of this
section was as under:- S.18(3A) " Any person responsible for paying to a
person not resident in British India any interest not being " interest on
securities", or any other sum chargeable under the provisions of this Act,
shall, at the time of payment, unless he is himself liable to pay income-tax
thereon as an agent, deduct income-tax at the maximum rate." The proviso
to this sub-section made provision for payment of monies without deduction if
there was a certificate of the Income Tax Officer to that effect. Under s.
18(7) of the Act a person making the deduction was required to pay the amounts
so deducted to the Income Tax authorities. In default of such deduction such
person became an assessee in respect of the tax.
Chapter V of the Act deals with "
Liability in Special Cases" which includes agents. Section 40(2) 120 944
dealing with the case of trustees or agents of a person non- resident in
British India; provided S.40 (2) "Where the trustee or agent of any person
not resident in British India and not being a minor, lunatic or idiot (such
person being herein after in this such section referred to as a beneficiary).
is entitled to receive on behalf of such beneficiary, or is in receipt on
behalf of such beneficiary of, any income, profits or gains chargeable under
this Act, the tax, if not levied on the beneficiary direct, may be levied upon
and recovered from such trustee or agent, as the case may be, in like manner
and to the same amount as it would be leviable upon and recoverable from the
beneficiary if in direct receipt of such income, profits or gains, and all the
provisions of this Act shall apply accordingly." Thus under this section
which is essentially a machinery and an enabling section the tax to be realised
from a non- resident could be levied upon the agent in the same manner as it
could have been leviable upon and recoverable from a non-resident. Section
42(1) of the Act provided:
" All income, profits or gains accruing
or arising, whether directly or indirectly, through or from any business
connection in British India, or through or from any property in British India,
or through or from any asset or source of income in British India, or through
or from any money lent at interest and brought into British India in cash or in
kind, shall be deemed to be income accruing or arising within British India,
and where the person entitled to the income, profits or gains is not resident
in British India, shall be chargeable to income-tax either in his name or in
the name of his agent, and in the latter case such agent shall be deemed to be,
for all the purposes of this Act, the assessee in respect of such income."
In proviso 2 to this sub-section any such agent who apprehended that he might
be taxed as such agent could retain out of any money payable to such non.
resident a sum equal to the estimated liability under the sub-,section and in the
event of any disagreement between the non-resident and such agent a certificate
945 could be obtained from the Income Tax Officer as to the amount to be
retained which shows that the Act had a provision for the determination of the
question. As was observed by Viscount Cave in Williams v. Singer (1):
"The fact is that, if the Income Tax
Acts are examined, it will be found that the person charged with tax is neither
the trustee nor the beneficiary as such, but the person in actual receipt and
control of the income which it is sought to reach. The object of the Acts is to
secure for the State a proportion of the profits chargeable, and this end is
attained (speaking generally) by the simple and effective expedient of taxing
the profits where they are found." See also Archer Shee v. Baker (2 ),
Executors of Estate of Dubash v. Commissioner of Income Tax (3).
This has rightly been stated to be the
underlying principle of the deduction under ss. 40, 41 and 42. Section 48 of
the Act deals with refunds and if the respondent thought that it was not liable
to the payment of any tax it could apply to the Income Tax Officer for refund.
Thus the Hapur firm being an agent could be
held liable under ss. 40(2) and 42(1) of the Act as an assessee for income-tax
on the profits made on the respondent's transactions at Hapur and was therefore
entitled under the proviso to s. 42(1) to retain the estimated amount of
income-tax payable on the amount of the respondent's profits which in this case
was deducted, retained and actually paid.
This fact has not been challenged before us.
The ground on which this liability is attacked is that the total world income
of the respondent was not taxable and therefore, on the profits made on the
Hapur transactions, the British Indian Tax authorities could not levy any tax.
This contention disregards the provisions of and liability arising under ss.
40(2) and 42(1) and the proviso thereto.
It also is contrary to the principle of
taxing statutes that the profits are " taxed where they are found."
In this case they were in the hands of the Hapur firm (I) (1920) 7 T. C. 387,
411 (H.L.). (2) (1927) i i T.C.
749, 770 (H.L.).
(3)  19 I.T.R. 182, 189 (S.C.).
946 which was in receipt and control of the
income. The agent at Hapur, having lawfully and properly paid the tax under the
Act that amount has been rightly deducted from the profits accruing on the
The Judgment of the Judicial Committee of the
ljlas-i-khas on which the High Court has based its decision suffers from the
infirmity that it ignores both the provisions of and principle underlying ss.
40(2) and 42(1) of the Act and the proviso thereto relating to the liability of
an agent under the Act and the law of Agency relating to employing of sub-
agents by agents. If the Hapur firm rightly paid the tax on the profits, the
respondent cannot be allowed to challenge the amount on the ground that his
total world income was not taxable and he was entitled to his profits without
deductions. That is a question which ha,,; to be agitated by the non-resident
assessee at the time of his assessment.
Those persons who are bound under the Act to
make deduction at the time of payment of any income, profits or gains are not
concerned with the ultimate result of the assessment.
The scheme of the Act is that deductions are
required to be made out of " salaries ", " interest on
securities " and other heads of " income profits and gains " and
adjustments are made finally at the time of assessment. Whether in the ultimate
result the amount of tax deducted or any lesser or bigger amount would be
payable as income-tax in accordance with the law in force would not affect the
rights, liabilities and powers of a person under s. 18 or of the agent under
ss. 40(2) and 42(1). As to what would be the effect and result of the
application of s. 17 if and when any appropriate prceedings are taken is not a
matter which arises in this appeal between the appellant and the respondent nor
can that matter be adjudicated upon in these proceedings. That is a matter
which would be entirely between the respondent and the Income Tax authorities
seized of the assessment.
Our attention was drawn to two cases (1)
Commissioner of Income-tax v. Currimbhoy Ebrahim & Sons(1) (1) (1935) 3
I.T.R. 325 (P.C.) 947 In that case the assessee company had been treated as an
agent of the Nizam of Hyderabad who had lent to the assessee company a sum of
Rs. 50 lakhs. The assessee company had paid in the assessment year a, sum of
Rs. 3 lakhs on account of interest and it was held that the interest earned by
the Nizam did not accrue or arise to the Nizam through or from any business
connection with the assessee company in British India or from any property
within British India and there- fore s. 42 was not applicable. No question of "business
connection" was raised in the court below and the argument there proceeded
on the basis that the respondent was not liable for this amount on account of
income-tax because the " entire income " was not assessable to income
tax. The argument of isolated transactions based on the Anglo-French Textile
Co. Ltd. v. Commissioner of Income-tax, Madras(1) is not available to the
respondent nor was the foundation for any such argument laid in the courts
below or raised in the statement of the case filed by the respondent in this
Another case on which reliance was placed is
Greenwood v. F. L. Smidth and Company(2 ). That was a case of a Danish firm
resident in Copenhagan. It manufactured and dealt with cement making machinery
which it exported to other countries. It had an office in London in charge of a
qualified engineer who received enquiries for machinery such as the firm could
supply, sent to Denmark particulars of the work which the machinery was
required to do and when the machinery was supplied he was avilable to give
English purchaser the benefit of his experience in erecting it. The contracts
between the firm and their customers were made in Copenhagan and the goods were
shipped F. 0. B. Copenhagan.
It was held in that case that the firm did
not exercise a trade within the United Kingdom within the meaning of Sch. D of
s. 2 of the Income Tax Act 1853 and was therefore not assessable to income-tax.
This decision is not relevant to the case now before us as the facts were
different and the dicision was under a different statute.
(1)  S.C.R. 454.
(2) (1922) 1 A.C. 417.
948 In our opinion the Judicial Committee of
Ijlas-i-khas was in error in holding that before fixing the liability of a
contributory to tax paid by an agent in British India for and on behalf of the
non-resident contributory, his liability to pay tax on his "entire income
" really total world income had to be established. Therefore the finding
of the High Court that the Liquidator cannot claim from the respondent the
amount of tax paid by the Hapur firm on transactions entered into by the
appellant for and on behalf of the respondent unless it was shown that his
total world income was taxable is unsustainable. As between the parties the tax
paid by the agent had to be taken into account irrespective of the ultimate
result of the assessment on the non-resident.
In the result this appeal is allowed and the
judgment and order of the Division Bench of the Pepsu High Court set aside and
the order of the learned Liquidation Judge restored but in the circumstances of
this case the parties will bear their own costs in this court and in the courts