Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
44. Partial absence or failure of money-consideration
When the consideration for which a person signed a promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque consisted of money and was originally absent in part, or has subsequently failed in part, the sum which a holder standing in immediate relation with such signer is entitled to receive from him is proportionally reduced.
Explanation: The drawer of a bill of exchange stands in immediate relation with the acceptor. The maker of a promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque stands in immediate relation with the payee, and the endorser with his endorsee. Other signers may by agreement stand in immediate relation with a holder.
A draws a bill on B for Rs. 500 payable to the order of A. B accepts the bill, but subsequently dishonors it by non-payment. A sues B on the bill. B proves that it was accepted for value as to Rs. 400, and as an accommodation to the plaintiff as to the residue. A can only recover Rs. 400.